Other Writing
MR Society

Criticism and Biographies

There are six main published studies. These are:

Religion and Art of William Hale White
Wilfred H. Stone
AMS Press, New York, 1954

Mark Rutherford: A Biography of William Hale White
Catherine Macdonald Maclean
MacDonald, London, 1955
Review by Philip Toynbee, 1955

William Hale White (Mark Rutherford): A Critical Study
Irvin Stock
George Allen and Unwin, London, 1956
Review in Times Literary Supplement, June 8th, 1955

Mark Rutherford (William Hale White)
Stephen Merton
Twayne Publishers, New York, 1967

Mark Rutherford: The Mind and Art of William Hale White
Catherine R. Harland
Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 1988

Bedfords Victorian Pilgrim: William Hale White in context
Michael A. Brealey
Authentic Publishing, 2012

Books with Substantial References to Mark Rutherford

There are other books with substantial references to Mark Rutherford:

Memories of Mark Rutherford
William Robertson Nicoll
T Fisher Unwin, London, 1924.
Essays taken from "A Bookman's Letters". Discusses WHW's meetings with and views on contemporary politicians such as Gladstone and Disraeli, his early life, and speculations on his "spiritual history". "Mark Rutherford's style had not much colour, and no apparent elaboration; but his words perfectly fitted his thought."

More Nineteenth Century Studies: A Group of Honest Doubters
Basil Willey
(Chapter V is Mark Rutherford)
Columbia University Press, New York, 1956

Some Late Victorian Attitudes, p 90-123
David Daiches
Andre Deutsch, 1967(?)

Everywhere Spoken Against, Chapter X
Valentine Cunningham
Oxford University Press, 1975

The Literature of Change
John Lucas
Harvester, 1977

Mortal Pages, Literary Lives: Studies in Nineteenth-Century Autobiography, ed. Vincent Newey and Philip Shaw, pp. 172-203
Vincent Newey
Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996

University Theses

These include:

William Hale White (Mark Rutherford)
Hans Klinke
University of Frankfurt PhD thesis, 1930. See article by Nicholas Jacobs

William Hale White
John Ernest Thorrington Wright
University of Pittsburgh PhD thesis, Pittsburgh, 1932
(The copy in Bedford Public Library has annotations by William Hale-White.)

The life and thought of William Hale White
Henry Arthur Smith
University of Birmingham PhD thesis, 1938
This can be accessed via EThOS

William Hale White (Mark Rutherford) and The Problem of Self-Adjustment in a World of Changing Values
Ursula Clare Buchmann
University of Zurich thesis, 1950

History Politics and Women: A Contextual Analysis of the writings of William Hale White
Sally Ledger
University of Oxford PhD thesis, 1990

An Awkward Rectitude: The Evolution of Hale White's Fiction
Lorraine Davies
University of Liverpool PhD thesis, 1994

Before Mark Rutherford: The Translations, Journalism and Essays of William Hale White. (There is also a supplementary chapter - Art and Culture.)
Mark Crees
University of Liverpool PhD thesis, 1999

Bunyan Studies

A special issue of Bunyan Studies was devoted to Mark Rutherford in 2013 (Number 17)
The contents are:

Introduction: William Hale White, Nonconformist and Novelist
W. R. Owens

Mark Rutherford and the Plight of the Dissenting Aesthete
Valentine Cunningham

The Revolution in Tanner’s Lane: The Honesty of Dissent in Politics, Religion
and the Family
Roger Pooley

A Mysterious Self-Portrait
Max Saunders

William Hale White and Literary Interpretation
Catherine R. Harland

Centring Bunyan: Macaulay, Froude, Hale White
Vincent Newey

William Hale White as a Religious Agnostic
Jean-Michel Yvard

Notes on Two European Scholars of William Hale White: Hans Klinke and Ursula Buchmann
Nicholas Jacobs

An Early Scholar of William Hale White: Henry Arthur Smith (1914–1969)
Michael Brealey

A Moment More: Beside Mark Rutherford’s Grave
Mark Crees


Michael Brealey, Bedford’s Victorian Pilgrim: William Hale White in Context
David Bebbington

(Copies of this special number are available at £12 (including postage), and may be obtained by writing to Professor David Walker, enclosing a cheque for £12 made payable to ‘Northumbria University’. His address is: Department of Humanities, Faculty of Arts, Design, and Social Sciences, Northumbria University, Lipman Building, Sandyford Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST. Alternatively, payment may be made online)

Other References

Other references to Mark Rutherford appear in the following books. Many thanks to Nick Jacobs for much of this information.

The Novels of Mark Rutherford (in Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association)
A.E. Taylor

The Unbelievers: English Agnostic Thought 1840-1890
A.O.J. Cockshut
Collins, London, 1964, pp. 136-142.

The March of Literature
Ford Madox Ford
Allen & Unwin/Readers Union, London, 1947, p. 720

Search Your Soul, Eustace
Margaret Maison

A Gathered Church: The Literature of the English Dissenting Interest, 1700-1930
Donald Davie
Routledge & Kegan Paul, London and Henley, 1976

The Novel and the People
Ralph Fox
Lawrence and Wishart, London

The Correspondence of Andre Gide and Edmund Gosse, 1904-1928
Linette F. Brugmans (trans)
Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1977, pp. 123-129.

A London Bookman
Frank Swinnerton
Martin Secker, London, 1928, pp. 99-104

Half-Hours in a Library
George Jackson
The Epworth Press, London, pp. 137-158

George Eliot: The Emergent Self
Ruby V. Redinger
Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1975, pp. 216-220

Charles Swann
The late Charles Swann wrote various articles about Mark Rutherford.

The Gale Literature Resource

The Gale Literature Resource is a private online resource that is accessible through some public libraries. It has the following articles:

William Hale White
Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2001.

William Hale White
Catherine Harland
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 18: Victorian Novelists After 1885. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by Ira B. Nadel, University of British Columbia and William E. Fredeman, University of British Columbia. The Gale Group, 1983, pp. 258-270.

Review of the Autobiography of Mark Rutherford, Dissenting Minister
The Athenaeum, No. 2791, April 23, 1881, p.555

Review of the Autobiography of Mark Rutherford
William Dean Howells
Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Vol. LXXII, No. CCCCXXIX, February 1886, pp. 485-486

Review of Catharine Furze
The Spectator, Vol. 72, No. 3442, June 16, 1894, pp. 830-831

Review of Clara Hopgood
The Athenaeum, No. 3590, August 15, 1896, p.220.

The Art of Mark Rutherford
The Academy, Vol. CVI, No. 1396, February 4, 1899, pp. 161-62.

Religion in Fiction in The Makers of English Fiction
W. J. Dawson
Fleming H. Revell Company, 1905, pp. 268-89.

Pages from a Journal, with Other Papers and More Pages from a Journal, with Other Papers
H. N. MacCracken
The Yale Review, n.s. Vol. III, No. 1, October, 1913, pp. 189-94

(The above eight reviews were all reprinted in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, Vol. 25)

See Praise for Mark Rutherford for more references.